The history of Chinese medicine, based on documentary data, has 4,000 years history, but in fact it originated much earlier.
Traditional Chinese medicine, Wushu, acupuncture, systematic knowledge and discernment of the many symptoms of hundreds of diseases, the use for medicinal purposes of snake venom and the secretions of lizards has become a real discovery for the civilized world. Its rich heritage still not fully utilized and unexplored – but the undoubted high efficiency and accuracy. Our time has come more than 8 thousand treatises on medicine. The oldest of them, “Huang di nazzi” (medical encyclopedia Huang di), was written by several generations of nameless authors in the years 475-221 BC, in the form of dialogues mythical physician Qi Bo by ancient Chinese ancestor, the Yellow Emperor Huang di. The treatise consists of 18 volumes, over 140 thousand characters.
We are talking about the Emperor Huang di, who ruled in the basin of the yellow river in the XXVI century BC, 2592 BC so this figure is quite real. The arrival of Huang di and his assistants has resulted in the “great glow of lightning, girded JI star in the constellation of the Dipper (URSA major)
Huang di and his team taught people how to make boats, harnesses for oxen, digging wells, manufacturing musical instruments, to build defensive walls, to be treated by acupuncture, keep a calendar.
Huang–di rules in North China, where postmetropolis the core of Chinese civilization.
The oldest known work on pharmacology has not survived, we only know that it was written in the II century BC and contained descriptions of 365 medicines.
In the XVI-XVII centuries of our era Chinese pharmacology was already known more than 60 thousand of these drugs – European pharmacology has reached a level not before the middle of the NINETEENTH. Fairly complete data on the history of herbal medicine survived in one of the most ancient countries in China. Representatives of traditional medicine of China was used mainly for medicinal plant resources.
From the very beginning of mankind’s existence on Earth his immediate task was the preservation of life. Man has always and everywhere been challenged by illnesses, sometimes awful and mysterious, behind which lurk in relentless enemy – death. Is it because for centuries people were interested in the disease, looking for ways to get rid of them. The use of infusions of herbs and treatment with the help of “acupuncture”, that is, the impaling needles included in the Arsenal of modern medicine, was used in China almost into the stone age.
Human life – living in some foreign environment, life rhythms, the foods he prefers or avoids, his personal relationships, his speech and gestures – all this is a tool for a better understanding of diseases and offers treatment methods according to the living environment of man. When the imbalance is identified, it can be adjusted, and the energy balance (and therefore health) is restored. In addition, categorical the basic principle of Chinese medicine is to control the movement of the energies of the body. Addition to medicines (herbs) often serves as acupuncture, whose history dates back to the days of “preliterate” (i.e. before the emergence of writing in China) era. But before the reign of the Han dynasty this relationship was not fully explored and was not used in full. The theoretical basis of this system is the management of so-called c,hi (the flow of vital energy). With hi flows through the body through a system of main and auxiliary channels of the body. At certain points on these channels can be inserted acupuncture needle to eliminate the imbalance within c,hi and to concentrate the forces of the body in those points where it is most needed.
During the dynasty of Zhou, that is, 12 centuries BC in China was the legendary ruler of Chen Nung who first gave a description of the medicinal plants.
His collection is specified, in particular, camphor, ergot, rhubarb and popular in the East, healing the root of life – ginseng. In the so-called “Book of Zhou Li”, referring to this time, occupational therapists are divided into four disciplines: dieticians, internist, surgeons and veterinarians. Obviously, it is at this time the medical case in China has shifted from priests to professionals doctors.
Therapeutic method of acupuncture and moxibustion (Zhen — acupuncture, Tszyu — burning) is the greatest achievement of the Chinese people and originates from the times of primitive society. In ancient literature there were many legends about the origin of acupuncture and moxibustion, such as the invention of stone needles “bian” Fu XI’s invention of acupuncture and moxibustion to the legendary Emperor Huang di.
The knowledge of the distant past is often given to us through the study of ancient manuscripts, legends, archaeological sites. So, in “the commentaries to the Spring and Autumn annals”, dated 550 BC says: “it’s Nice to hear that the illness goes away, but it is unpleasant to hear that there are the stones.” This indicates the use of ancient stone tools and needles to treat diseases. During archaeological excavations of the settlements of those times took the stones that could be used for therapeutic purposes.
The first acupuncture needles were made of stone, tor Chi (chin. Bian Shi, eng. stone acupuncture needls). They had the finest of the hole (like a syringe needle), which, as I thought, moves the active principle “Yang”. Subsequently needle were made not only from silicon or Jasper, but also from bone, bamboo, and later of metals: bronze, silver, gold, platinum and stainless steel. Method development has been a specialty needles and their division into types.
In his treatise “nei Jing” describes 9 varieties of the needles (stone and metal): needle tip for surface pricking; round needle for massaging, the blunt needle for tapping and pressure, sharp three-edged needle for venous puncture, its sable-like needle to remove pus, the sharp round needle for rapid insertion, the filiform needle (used most often), a long needle (up to 20 cm) for piercing of thick muscles, a big needle for the treatment of joints.
A rich variety of needles talks about the breadth of a method of acupuncture in ancient times: it was used for the treatment and prevention of diseases, for pain relief during operations, as well as in combination with massage and moxibustion method, i.e. thermal effects on “vital points” by lit cigarettes filled with dried leaves of medicinal plants. Most often these purposes was used the herb Moxa (Chinese. moss, lat. Artemisia vulgans; English. mugwort). Moreover, it was considered that the effectiveness of the Moxa treatment increases with the years of storage. So, for the treatment by cauterization of the disease, which appeared seven years ago, it was recommended Moxa collected three years ago.
In Ancient China there were several methods of moxibustion. Direct moxibustion was performed at the immediate vicinity of the burning cigarette from the body. In the method of indirect moxibustion cigarette was at some distance from the point of impact, and between the cigarette body and could fit the drug. Moxibustion with warm needles combined and acupuncture and moxibustion: the cigarette was twisted around the needle and lit, when the needle was in the tissue; thus, was achieved by the combined effect (the glow needle and medicinal plants).