The cultivation of medicinal plants
Research on the protection of medicinal plants against harmful organisms was carried out by staff, the VILAR center and zonal networks in different regions of Russia. To determine the prevalence of pests, diseases and weeds for medicinal cultures were carried out phytosanitary inspection of crops.
When studying the species composition of weeds was found that in crops medicinal crops observed mixed type of infestation. The main are annual dicotyledonous weeds (chamomile, chamomile odorless, chamomile dog, starwort average, knotweed, shepherd’s purse, winter cress ordinary, pigweed white, grechishka Tatar, Gnaphalium uliginosum), grasses (annual meadow grass), creeping-rooted perennial (sow Thistle, quackgrass). Development of a system of fractional (double) application of the herbicide roundup on the fallow, intended for planting medicinal crops, contributed to a considerable reduction of contamination of crops medicinal crops this year, including perennial creeping-rooted weeds like sow Thistle, couch grass, dandelion.
Against harmful insects it should be noted that in 2005 the highest prevalence on crops Hypericum had a leaf, the four-o’clock, rhubarb and plantain – flea beetles, aromatic plants (oregano, hyssop, bee balm, susnik) were infested by leafhoppers 100% average degree. For the first time significant damage to the forest by mallow Malvaceae leaf.
Fig. Top – the double treatment of vegetating plants: digitalis woolly, from tilt + zircon (single treatment) + post-processing zircon
Monitoring severity of disease was conducted on the basis of data on the prevalence and development filipiinid organisms. So, the woolly Foxglove dominant disease was Septoria spot. By the end of the growing season the infestation of the leaves by the pathogen were made on plants II year of vegetation 30-50%, the prevalence of the disease is 75-82%. This year the rust on the Rhaponticum, mint and Malwa, in contrast to 2002-2003, had a strong development. For the first time marked the defeat of rust Potentilla albiflorum. For some medicinal crops, such as bloodroot albiflorum, serpouhi, leuzea, belladonna, Echinacea discovered different types of spotting. Root rot was found on the Echinacea, Valerian, serpouhi, the four-o’clock, but they had little distribution.
Weather conditions of 2005 contributed to the development of powdery mildew fungi on almost all the medicinal cultures in medium and strong degree. Epiphytotic development of the disease is reached on the plantain, motherwort and the four-o’clock.
Strategy of search of protection for medicinal cultures is based on the principle of maximum reduction in the level of negative impact of pesticides for agrobiocenosis and active use of bioregulators. For protection from pests four-o’clock, belladonna, Hypericum, plantain zmeegolovnika and held the search of effective drugs and assessment of their biological effectiveness.
On the four-o’clock continued trials on joint application of regulators of growth Zircon and EPIN-extra insecticidal protectant Chinook. Studies have shown that the composition of restoreultra with the chemical protectant, taken in half the consumption rate, has strong growth promoting action and a good insecticidal effect against flea beetles. In the advanced options to increase plant density by 25-30% and 100% protection from flea beetles. Experienced four-o’clock plants exceeded control growth and development: by weight – 38-45%, the number of leaves is 18-20%. Due to the strong spread of powdery mildew on the plant four-o’clock of the first year of vegetation were carried out tests of a new generation of Wins. Studies have shown that the fungicide inhibited the development of disease.
On the four-o’clock II year of vegetation abundance and prevalence of flea beetles has been less than in previous years. In this regard, to protect the crops from this pest has been used in a biologic Fitoverm, efficiency was of 85-90%. The seed yield in this variant exceeded the control by 18%. The use of tank mixtures of a biological product Fitoverm and restoreultra Zircon has improved the seed yield by 35%.
On the seeds of Hypericum in 2005 there was a mixed type of blockage, both dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous weeds. In this regard, test tank mixtures of herbicides of Basargan and FUSILADE-super. The effectiveness of drugs amounted to 82-85%. This year was marked damage to the plants Hypericum tortrix control, the pest distribution was approximately 60-70%, the degree of damage is 1-2 points. To increase the stability of St. John’s wort to pest damage and activation of growth processes were processed plantation restoreultra Zircon and microfertilizer of Svantovit that would eliminate the treatment of crops with insecticides and to preserve the harvest of grass.
Belladonna conducted on the test compositions of restorelocation Zircon and EPIN-extra with the fungicide Kaluga-super, which helped to improve seed germination and reduce seedling damage by root rots. In field experiments on the variants with application of restoreultra and fungicide were obtained earlier and a lot of seedlings of the belladonna, the plant density exceeded control by 20-25%. Ground handling agents generousi plants, Zircon, EPIN-extra and Gerovital increased the foliage of plants, increased the area assimilyatsionny surface 28 to 35% and significantly reduced leaf lesion diseases. The belladonna II year of vegetation was conducted in field experiments but tested growth regulators and microfertilizers. Studies have shown that in the experimental plots was observed to increase the yield of grass on a 38-52% reduction in 54-58% of the number of leaves with symptoms of disease.
On the zmeegolovnika Moldovan were tested microfertilizers Activit MB, double the use of which contributed to the reduction of harmfulness of green Sitona-ski, a more intensive growth and development of crops, increase the yield of grass by 47.2% and increasing the content of essential oil by 31.6%. From the tested herbicides most pre-emergence selectivity showed Treflan at a rate of 4 l/ha.
This year work continued on the development of the integrated systems of protection of macleaya in the North Caucasus AIA and rose on Middle Volga AIA Data systems include agricultural practices, the use of immunomodulators that reduce the use of pesticides for the above mentioned medicinal crops.
The materials for the comprehensive protection of the woolly Foxglove and marigolds drug, allowing to increase the yield of crops 25 to 54% and get high quality and ecologically pure medicinal raw materials.
For the current year in scientific journals and proceedings of conferences Published 4 articles in the printing guide delivered. “The protection of medicinal crops from pests, diseases and weeds” and 1 article.
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