The inclusion of medicinal plants in crop rotation
Features of cultivation of medicinal plants. Factors affecting the content of active substances in the plant.
Methods introduction and evaluation introduction the state of medicinal plants.
The task of introduction of medicinal plants, introduction of trials in Botanical gardens and scientific institutions of the Russian Federation.
Topic 9. Introduction of medicinal plants
Questions the theme:
1. The task of introduction of medicinal plants, introduction of trials in Botanical gardens and scientific institutions of the Russian Federation.
2. Methods introduction and evaluation introduction the state of medicinal plants.
3. Features of cultivation of medicinal plants. Factors affecting the content of active substances in the plant.
4. Drying and storage of medicinal plants.
5. The use of medicinal plants for the decoration of beds – beds on individual plots.
The main objectives of introduction of medicinal plants is:
. • introductions, genetics, breeding and seed production;
. • collector’s study of medicinal plants;
. • monitoring of gene pool of plants;
. • development of agronomic technologies;
The operational depletion of natural stocks of medicinal plants, irregular postavkama from the former Soviet republics, the continued deterioration of population health caused necessity of introduction – introduction to cultural flora new plant species recommended by scientific medicine for the treatment of diabetes, cardio-vascular, oncological diseases.
Introduction to assess the condition of the plants various methods of scoring depending on the life forms of the studied species conditions of introduction region. Universal for perennial species should be considered as the ability to seed and vegetative propagation.
Annual species are assessed in their ability to complete the development cycle before the end of the vegetation period and form viable seeds.
The maximum General assessment of introduction (10 points) is given to those species that give the self-seeding that can compete with native species. Such plants are called promising.
Plants with a rating (8-9) can also be considered promising due to their high cold hardiness and ability to seed and vegetative propagation. Introduction the ability of species with score 5 to 7 points is limited, however, and will not exhausted the possibility of finding more sustainable designs. Annuals in the evaluation of seed breeding 3 to 4 points are promising for cultivation.
The cultivation of medicinal plants is a relatively young agricultural industry of specialized crop production. Its origins were medieval monastic gardens, medicinal raw materials of plant which supplied the monastery’s pharmacy. The beginning of the current agricultural production of some medicinal plants belongs to the second half of the nineteenth century, which is a direct reflection of the interest in medicinal plants at the time. Since then there has been a trend towards increased cultivation of medicinal plants, not only in relation to the production of an individual species, but also in regard to their number. If in the beginning of XX century it was of a more horticultural nature, mainly due to the fact that this is predominantly planted grown from seeds the seedlings on relatively small areas in most cases, not reaching even one hectare, at the present time the cultivation of medicinal plants is a pronounced agricultural character. The prevailing sowing seeds in open ground in large areas, and used farm equipment (of course, appropriately adapted), used in the production of conventional agricultural crops – cereal and roots. Currently grows about 100 species of medicinal plants, including 30 in the large scale production. Among medicinal plants cultivated on large areas of land, owned by fennel ( Matricaria chamomilla ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), coriander seed ( Conundrum sativum ), Valerian officinalis ( Valeriana officinalis ), the soporific poppy ( Papaver somniferum ), peppermint ( Mentha piperita ), the woolly Foxglove ( Digitalis lanata ), ergot ( Claviceps purpurea ), marshmallow ( Althaea officinalis ), belladonna ( Atropa bella-donna ). In this list are not listed in the book medicinal plants are mainly used as vegetables, although they are also grown over large areas.
The vast majority grown in culture of medicinal plants introduced unlike traditional agricultural crops only recently. In this regard, most of them in culture retain some of the characteristics of wild species, which often hinders their successful cultivation. Certain types of significantly variable, morphologically not aligned, uneven multi-temporal germinate and ripen. So along with finding the optimal agrotechnical methods, with cultivated species of breeding work is carried out in order to obtain uniform high-yielding varieties and, most importantly, in order to achieve a high quality of raw material, in other words, the increased content of active substances.
Growing on large areas may also require greater use of mechanization, especially at harvest. Without the mechanization of the cultivation of medicinal plants on large areas is almost impossible due to the large amount of manpower required for their treatment, and the high proportion of physical labor greatly increases the costs of cultivation and also culture seem uneconomical.
On the cultivation of the medicinal plants are distributed in essentially the same principles that apply to other crops, but at the same time there are certain, quite specific features of these cultures in terms of their zoning, fertilizing, protecting and harvesting.