Traditional Chinese medicine
Chinese medicine there is a much longer than traditional Western. This fact is confirmed not only transferable oral legends and tales, but extant ancient Chinese medical texts and treatises.
The oldest medical treatise is the “Treatise on the internal” (nei-Jing), which contains experience of Chinese medical practice. It codified knowledge on herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion. It is worth to note that it exists for over 2000 years, and Hippocrates (the founder of Western medicine) appeared a few centuries later.
Traditional Chinese medicine was virtually unknown in the West until recently. The pioneers in this area were Jesuit missionaries who were in China only in the 17th century, Western culture became acquainted with traditional Chinese medicine. In subsequent centuries political and cultural ties between East and West intensified and became more frequent, and the opportunity to further explore aspects of Chinese culture, including traditional medicine and pharmacology.
Even nowadays, when there are multiple translations of the Chinese with annotations, treatises into European languages, the circle of specialists who could make serious and reliable research in sravneniya systems of different cultures, is limited to those few who are able to read original ancient Chinese texts.
As is the case with many other aspects of Chinese culture, the authorship of the medical classics had been placed on the mythical characters and forced back to the ancient times. According to tradition, the birth of art treatment was associated with Huangdi (Yellow Emperor) and the study of pharmacology with the divine farmer Shen-noone. They revealed their wisdom in the Huangdi Nacin, or “the yellow Emperor” and Shen-Nung, bencao. “The treatise Shen-noona on roots and herbs”, respectively. Considered Huangdi invented writing, music and medicine. Chinese historical records date from the reign of Huangdi and therefore Nacin Huangdi in 2698 BC, this time in no way can be considered historically reliable. Huangdi Nacin is one of the first and, undoubtedly, a very important treatise in the history of Chinese medicine, which had a huge impact on the development of medicine in China in the next century. The book records the dialogues between the Yellow Emperor and some of his wise men-the doctors considered all aspects of diagnostic pathology, acupuncture and moxibustion. There are described theoretical and practical basis of treatment with detailed comments and advice.
Another important classical treatise is the Nanjing, or the Yellow Emperor Eighty-one difficult question. According to the legend, starting from the Shiji (91 BC), this book is the work of a physician bian Cue, which is assumed to have flourished in the period between the sixth and third centuries B. C. Later, the Nanjing was added to the Yellow Emperor. It is believed that Nanjing is the commentary to the Huangdi Nacin that contain the descriptions of the individual dark areas and complex issues of ancient treatise. Nanjing explains medical theory and practice is much more clear, transparent way than a treatise on internal.
Unlike the Nanjing, the yellow Emperor was compiled over several centuries by different people. It combines the spirituality and cosmology next to Confucian discussions on ethical considerations, there is a very rational and scientific arguments that follow after the assessment of physiological alchemy. Some parts of the book, Dating from the reign of the Qing dynasty the other part – the Tang dynasty.
Some of the most important discoveries of Chinese medicine were made by the physician bian CUA, including he described the theoretical basis of Yin and Yang, the five elements, the impact of environmental factors on health, as well as deepened knowledge about meridians and acupuncture. He was the first physician produces a diagnosis of the patient’s health pulse.
Regardless of the high ratings and the significance of historical texts in the Chinese tradition, almost all of them do not contain information about the author and the date of its establishment. Uniform structure and content of Nanjing has confirmed that this is not just a set of thoughts and ideas, as is often the case with early texts in Chinese literature, but was written by one author and therefore belongs to the same time. Most Western scholars have dated the book from the first to the third century ad, in General, their calculations are based on the Dating of the “Shang Han bin LUN CSA” (Judgments about febrile affections by cold and different internal diseases) written by Zhang JI (142-220) that were created under the influence of Nanjing. Zhang JI one of the most famous ancient Chinese herbalists. Today, prescriptions still are of great practical importance. His treatise on internal diseases caused by cold, is still used as a reference.
One of the most famous surgeons was a doctor, Hua tuo (110-207 ad), he first used anesthesia and contributed to the expansion of medical knowledge on human anatomy. Also, Hua tuo developed the Game with 5 animals: a series of exercises that develop and strengthen all the muscles of the body.
During the reign of the sui dynasty. Chao yuan Wang wrote “the General Treatise on the Causes and symptoms of diseases” which consisted of 50 volumes, divided into 67 categories, and describe 1,700 syndromes. This book had a strong influence on the subsequent development of medicine, since it described the signs and symptoms of various diseases from the fields of surgery, gynecology, and Pediatrics.
During the Ming dynasty, after the liberation from the Tatar-Mongol yoke, the greatest physician and pharmacologist Lee Min Shing has created a compilation of the Ben Cao gang mu (Materia Medica). The text, which has accumulated 40 years of experience of the practitioner, contained 1900000 Chinese characters and described more than 1800 drugs, had 1,100 illustrations and 11,000 prescriptions. Also Materia Medica contains a detailed description 1094 herbs (their type, shape, flavor, pharmacological properties and uses in treatment). This book is one of the biggest contributions to the development of pharmacology in China and around the world. Materia Medica has been translated into many languages and remains the Premier reference on herbal medicine .
In ancient China, as in other ancient societies, the idea of evolution worked seemingly in reverse, the initial knowledge is the most faithful and reliable. In traditional Chinese medicine, a new thing can be justified and accepted if you can prove that it is mentioned in ancient times. As a result, medicine in China is seen as a body of knowledge which has undergone very little change for a long historical period.
Chinese physicians have justly considered the human body not as something self-contained and isolated from the outside world, but saw him as a complex system, each element of which is functionally linked with the rest of them in certain ratios and under certain laws.
Traditional Chinese medicine has made a great contribution to the development of modern medicine in General. Methods of diagnosis and treatment, which have reached us from ancient times, is actively and successfully used to this day. Methods of traditional Chinese medicine are gaining increasing popularity worldwide due to its effectiveness and accessibility. It is better to prevent disease than to treat it, but if treated, not only the hearth, but of the entire affected organism as a whole!